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Annexe A Grp Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)


Names:Kevin Fernandez and Jerremy Ng

Class: S2-01

Group Reference: G  

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the antibacterial effect of chrysanthemum

[ x ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

 ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene 

[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

  1. Type & Category

Type of research: 2

Category  – 11

Sub-category –  A

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
Absolute zero can be used to preserved anything and everything. It can also help to make engines more productive by reducing the waste heat so the engine would not pollute the world and is also more efficient.

C.    Write down your research title Measurement of zero kelvin

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed 

How does a graph for zero kelvin look like?There are many things Absolute Zero can do. Based on what we found out, it can freeze people and preserve them although it's many more uses are still unknown.

Absolute Zero is known to man as the lowest temperature possible according to scientists but nobody has ever reached that temperature before. At the very most, the lowest temperature ever reached is 450pK(0.45nanoK) Link HERE. Nobody can achieve absolute zero or somewhere close to it, since it would be IMPOSSIBLE to reach temperatures like that. We may use different methods of cooling like laser cooling and evaporative cooling to get close there Link HERE. We will be using liquid nitrogen since it is already only 77K or less and we may still further lower the temperature. I found out why it is impossible to reach Absolute 0. The main reason is that we need to abstract infinite energy from the particles. It is just like how particles cannot move at the speed of light because infinite energy is needed to make it move at that speed. Also, reaching that temperature will break the 3rd law of thermodynamics.

The 3rd law of thermodynamics, based on research, is regarding the properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature where The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero.

It is thought that when particles cannot move, it means that there is NO volume. So, when a balloon is in absolute zero condition, the gas in the balloon is of no volume. This means that the lower the temperature of the particles, the lower its volume. We want to reach temperatures around it we have to use something called a cooling bath. A cooling bath is used to cool matter to temperatures never reached before and stay that. Since we will be doing something like use a cooling bath, we need cooling agents like liquid nitrogen (-196 oC) or its equivalent to cool particles to find out whether or not the particles actually reach there.

The only way to find out the speed of particles is to use brownian motion which is to use watch the particles under a microscope where it gets bombarded by air particles.Research shows that the lower the temperature of the particles, the slower it will move and at absolute zero, the particles will not move at all.

Another factor that affects the speed of particles is pressure. The lower the pressure, the lower the boiling and melting point and vice versa. Meaning, if we use liquid nitrogen at normal earth pressure compared to mount everest pressure, the liquid nitrogen is at a lower temperature at mt everest than normal circumstances. I also found out through research is that the pressure changes because the amount of air increases or decreases. So, for our project, we will put our set-ups in a pressure chamber and increase the atm for 2 of the setups, decrease the atm in another 2 and the rest of them, instead of increasing the atm.

*atm: atmospheric pressure.

(b) Independent variable

Pressure, temperature, type of cooling agent (dry ice, liquid nitrogen),
(c) Dependent variable

(d) Controlled variables
amount of ethanol in test tube, amount of liquid nitrogen in beaker
      (e) Hypotheses

The lower the pressure, the lower the temperature.
The lower the temperature, the lower the speed at which the particles move

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:

  1. liquid nitrogen  1 litre
  2. dry ice 1kg
  3. 6 beakers
  4. 6 test tubes
  5. 6 retort stands
  6. ethanol 5l
  7. salt 500g
  8. water 500g
  9. 2 microscopes
  10. 6 thermometers
  11. 6 Air tight pressure chambers
  12. 12 Petri dishes
  13. a few  toothpicks
  14. Thermal flask
  15. Thermocouple TCA-BTA
  16. Silica gel
  17. pressure sensor
  18. datalogger

(b) Diagrams

Note: Diagram 1 is without the liquid nitrogen and diagram 2 is with the liquid nitrogen

(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

Step 1:Put a piece of silica gel inside a boiling tube.
Step 2:For temperatures above room temperature, put normal water inside and cap it with a rubber stopper.
Step 3:Connect a pressure sensor to the boiling tube and connect the sensor to a datalogger which is connected to a laptop.
Step 4:

(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

The very low temperatures we will get may give us frostbyte (if using liquid nitrogen or liquid helium)
We must wear protective gloves all the time
The chemicals we will use may be poisonous
Wear gloves and protective glasses.
We may swallow the liquid nitrogen
Be very careful and wash hands thoroughly
asphyxiation: where we may die of lack of oxygen
Don’t use too much of liquid nitrogen
Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

1.    We measure the temperature using a thermocouple TCA BTA and the pressure in the boiling tube.
2.    Plot a graph of the temperature and the pressure
3.    From the graph, we can find out what temperature absolute zero is at.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

Simon, F. (1936). The approach to the absolute zero of temperature. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

(b) Journals

Ouboter, R. de B.. (2002). [Review of Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold]. Isis, 93(4), 672–673.

(c) Websites

Absolute Zero. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

Absolute zero | temperature. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

Absolute Zero. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

Brownian Motion. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2016, from

Cooling Bath. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2016, from

Finding Absolute Zero. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

How are temperatures close to absolute zero achieved and measured? (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

Kelvins. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

Third law of Thermodynamics. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

What happens at absolute zero? (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from

Why can't we get down to absolute zero? (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2016, from                      

Atmospheric Pressure. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2016, from

Changing atmospheric pressure. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2016, from

Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold. 261 pp., index. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999. $25. Tom Shachtman’s book deals with the fourhundred-year history of the fascinating science of reaching low temperatures and producing cold. The book reads like a novel and recounts the history of reaching lower and lower temperatures and the discovery of new properties of matter when absolute zero is approached. At the same time, the efforts and adventures of the colorful characters who played a role in this story get full attention, together with the technological and commercial impact of their discoveries. Shachtman begins his tale with Cornelis Drebbel’s attempts to “air-condition” Westminster This content downloaded from on Fri, 22 Jan 2016 01:11:48 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions BOOK REVIEWS—ISIS, 93 : 4 (2002) 673 Abbey on a hot summer day in 1620 for the delight of King James I and continues with Robert Boyle, who embarked around 1665 on the scientific experimentation and inquiries that would lead to his well-known law. In 1787 Marinus van Marum liquefied ammonia, showing that Boyle’s law did not hold in the new low-temperature region. With Daniel Fahrenheit (1720), the development of accurate thermometers began. The chapter “Through Heat to Cold” takes us into the early nineteenth century, where the steam engine powered the industrial revolution, and instructs us about the development of thermodynamics by unraveling the mechanisms through which heat can be converted into work (here he focuses on the work of Sadi Carnot [1824], William Thomson [1851], and Rudolf Clausius [1850–1860], with his famous fundamental theorem that the energy of the universe is constant and that entropy tends to a maximum). The conquest of cold came about through the study of heat. In 1873 Johannes Diderik van der Waals set out to develop a coherent description of real gases, taking into account the actual space occupied by real gas molecules, along with the forces they exert on one another, and to explain qualitatively the measurements of the isotherms of carbon dioxide performed by Thomas Andrews (1869). Shachtman describes in succession the liquefaction of oxygen (183 C or 90 K) and nitrogen (196 C or 77 K) in small droplets in 1877 by Raoul Pictet and by Louis Cailletet, the liquefaction of larger quantities using a cascade method by Syzgmunt Wroblewski and Karol Olszewski (1883) and by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1892), and the obtaining of patents in 1892 by both Carl Linde and William Hampson for large-scale gas-liquefaction processes based on Joule-Thomson expansion and the use of counterflow heat exchangers. In 1902 Georges Claude introduced the expansion piston at low temperatures, and soon both liquid oxygen and nitrogen were being produced on an industrial scale. In the meantime, James Dewar developed the glass thermos bottle with silver coating (1892) and in 1898 succeeded in reaching even lower temperatures with the first liquefaction of hydrogen (20 K above absolute zero). Dewar’s apparatus produced only small amounts of liquid hydrogen. In 1906 his competitor Kamerlingh Onnes constructed a hydrogen liquefier capable of producing relatively large amounts. This steady supply was the key to his attempt to liquefy helium. On 10 July 1908 he accomplished the first liquefaction of helium at 4.2 K, and by reducing its pressure he reached 1.7 K above absolute zero the same day. This fascinating period in the science of cold is illustrated with numerous details from the correspondence between Dewar and Onnes and others. In the following years wonderful discoveries took place in the temperature range attainable by liquid helium. Onnes had the first glimpse of the strange new world of superfluidity when he discovered superconductivity in mercury in 1911. The superconductive state appears to be a remarkable example of a quantum state of macroscopic size. Roughly half a century of intensive research was necessary before an understanding of superconductivity on a microscopic basis was established by John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, and J. Robert Schrieffer (1957). Another mysterious phenomenon discovered at very low temperatures was the superfluidity in both helium isotopes: 4He below the lambda temperature (2.17 K) (Pyotr Kapitza and others [1938– 1941]) and 3He in the milli-Kelvin range (Robert Richardson, David M. Lee, and Douglas Osheroff [1971]). The book ends by discussing laser cooling in the submicron Kelvin range near absolute zero with the creation of a new form of matter, a Bose-Einstein condensate (Carl E. Wieman, Eric A. Cornell, and Wolfgang Ketterle [1995]). The field of low-temperature physics has yielded twenty-one Nobel Prizes, an illustration of its scientific importance. All the principal cooling methods are discussed in the book except the very efficient 3He-4He dilution refrigerators in the milli-Kelvin range. RUDOLF DE BRUYN OUBOTER

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